Database Management Basics

Database management is a system to manage information that is essential to the business operations of an organization. It includes data storage, distributing it to users and applications and then modifying it if necessary as well as monitoring changes to the data and preventing it from getting damaged by unexpected failures. It is a part of an organization’s overall informational infrastructure, which supports decision-making and growth for the business as well as compliance with laws such as the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

The first database systems were invented in the 1960s by Charles Bachman, IBM and others. They evolved into information management systems (IMS) that allowed the storage and retrieve large amounts data for a variety of applications, from the calculation of inventory to supporting complicated financial accounting and human resources functions.

A database is tables that organize data according to a particular pattern, for example, one-to-many relationships. It makes use of primary keys to identify records and allow cross-references between tables. Each table is comprised of a set of attributes, or fields, that provide information about data entities. Relational models, developed by E. F. “TedCodd Codd in the 1970s at IBM as a database, are the most used database type in the present. This model is based on normalizing data to make it more user-friendly. It is also simpler to update data because it doesn’t require changing certain sections of the database.

Most DBMSs support various types of databases, by providing different levels of internal and external organization. The internal level is concerned with the cost, scalability, and other operational issues, like the physical layout of the database. The external level is the way the database is presented in user interfaces and other applications. It can include a combination of different external views (based on different data models) and could also include virtual tables that are computed from generic data in order to improve performance.